As an educator, naturally I think a lot about education (now if you liked that riveting beginning please read on). Over my years as a professor we hear a lot of about better methods to educate. A lot of fancy phrases get thrown around like problem based learning, inquiry learning, student centered pedagogy, etc. Rather than discuss the merits of these techniques and whether or not they are better than the “chalk and talk” style of teaching (another exciting catch phrase) I want to take a look at things from a more fundamental and philosophical level as is often my nature.
Let’s first forget about the fact that there are multiple learning styles amongst people and that the way we learn also changes as we grow in age. What I mainly want to talk about has to do with knowledge, learning, and critical thinking and we may return to some more specific stuff later, I really can’t be sure, because I haven’t decided what the point is to this blog. 🙂
So how much knowledge is there in the world? Before we quibble about what knowledge is, or whether we can truly “know” anything, let’s just sort of look at it from a somewhat quantitative point of view. It seems clear to me that if you take any field of study we simply know more today than we did yesterday. Every day we are discovering new things. So we have a lot more to learn or that we can learn today than in the past. Yes there are always things that we are going to be a little unsure about or that we are on the leading edge of discovery and so haven’t solidified our views yet, but each day we move a lot of things into “okay we know this” category and out of the “unsure” category. Truthfully speaking every day we probably do the reverse as well, but I would say there is a net movement towards “knowing” something new all the time.
It is also clear, as we look at education (and I am speaking mostly about North America) that critical thinking skills are low. I am a huge proponent of encouraging better critical thinking skills in children. In fact children already have great critical thinking skills, it’s just that the education system eventually drives it out of them. Perhaps due to the fact that kids are often wrong in the conclusions they make (which by the way is amazingly okay because we should be encouraging the process and I think instead we tend to shut the process down in favor of the “right” answer, and perhaps because education as an institution promotes rote memorization over critical thinking. Not to give rote memorization a completely bad rap, because I think there always has to be a place for being able to memorize things).
So to go back to my point
about knowledge, there is a lot of things to know and even under the banner of better critical thinking skills it is, in my opinion, extremely wasteful to have young children rediscover everything we know in this world. I also think this is okay because kids are extremely good at memorizing things so why not let those sponges soak up some basic knowledge? Some very thought provoking researchers on education like Sugata Mitra would argue that in the age of information memorization of information is not necessary, that anybody can simply look up the information they need. Given the amount of misinformation out there in cyberspace I think at the very least a basic set of knowledge is required to at least help students from sorting out bad information from good. And as the picture indicates, memory is an important part of the processor that is our brain. We need to have some stuff in there.
But young children are good at a lot of things and there are certain ages where they are exceptionally good at certain things such as learning languages, learning mathematics, and rote memorization. I gave a talk one time to a bunch of 2nd graders on tornado safety and there was not a single student who didn’t have a question and who was curious. At that point I began to wonder, how do we go from this child thirsty for knowledge to the typical apathetic college student I see in my class? The next question then becomes why don’t we take advantage of what we know about how kids learn and when they learn best? In answer to that question I have only opinions so please forgive me if I’m grossly mistaken, but I think it comes down to several things:
- A pace of learning that is too slow. Children become bored and their active minds turn to other things. The rate in which knowledge is expected to be absorbed by a student actually increases with time which is exactly the opposite order it should be. I’ve heard the argument that young children shouldn’t have to work so hard at school at younger ages that they should play more. My experience in watching young children learn is that play and learning aren’t really that different. And I think there are ways to even make the learning more interactive socially for those who might worry about a loss of social skills as they spend more time learning.
- A lack of funding for schools and low pay in general for educators. I know, another educator complaining about funding, but the emphasis a society places on good education is important. Giving all schools equity in retaining good teachers, smaller class sizes, and having effective tools for the trade is important. By making teaching a higher paying and attractive career by ensuring they will have the tools they need when they start their career, we can bring in brighter and better teachers. In my experience I have seen far too many students choose teaching (especially in science) because specializing in their chosen interest was too hard. This seems wrong to me. Currently most of the brightest and best go elsewhere because they can make more money, and those that are extremely bright and choose nobility over money (I praise them all!) are often frustrated by a system in which they do not feel supported and actually feel constrained and trapped. I think the lack of finances is in large part why curriculums become less varied and standardized because they are more easily measurable in making decisions on how to dole out the limited funding that all schools fight for.
- Homogenizing teaching. The feeling that many teachers have is that they have little freedom in their curriculum or how they teach. Exposing students to a diversity of teaching styles and material increases the value of collaborative efforts among students and helps students understand the teaching style that works best for them. If all students are exactly the same and exposed to exactly the same style of learning it doesn’t surprise me that many students are bored, or don’t see the value of education. It doesn’t surprise me that many students simply see education as a game in which once they figure out the system they can cheat themselves out of actual learning and simply get the grade they need to move forward. Let student’s express their individuality through learning is important, and I think part of that comes from letting teachers express their individuality more through teaching.
I apologize for the length of this post as I find I can never be brief when it comes to talking about education. I think instead of coming up with ways to make learning fun, let’s remember that for every little kid, learning IS fun. Let’s figure out instead how to foster that feeling as they grow older.